Heterosis in maize pdf files

Genetic basis of grain yield heterosis in an immortalized. It is widely known in maize fig 1, and many perennial biomass programs also employ heterosis either in the form of polyploids e. Combining ability and heterosis analysis of single cross hybrids of maize zea mays l. One of the most important objectives of maize breeding is the production of high yielding hybrids. Heterosis and combining ability studies in maize zea mays l. Several studies have shown differences in the abilities of maize genotypes to facilitate or impede azospirillum brasilense colonization and to receive benefits from this association. To understand the genetic basis of heterosis controlling ph and eh, we conducted quantitative trait locus qtl analysis using a recombinant inbreed line ril based design iii population derived.

To explore heterosis manifestation of maize immature ear development, the uppermost ears at 14leaf stage v14 were collected form maize hybrid. It is most widely known for its application in maize, where hybrids are the basis of nearly all commercial breeding programs worldwide. Russell wa 1974 comparative performance for maize hybrids representing different eras of maize breeding. Corn maize nearly all field corn grown in most developed nations exhibits heterosis. Pdf combining ability, heterosis and genetic diversity. High heterosis estimates were reported by paterniani and lonnquist 1963, varying from 11. Utilization of heterosis in maize is of great importance for boosting grain yield 14. Utilization of heterosis in maize could be critical in maize breeding for boosting grain yield. Heterosis, also known as hybrid vigor, is a phenomenon where an organism has greater vigor than its distantly related parents.

To dissect the genetic basis of yieldrelated traits and heterosis in maize, 301 recombinant inbred lines derived from 08 to 641. Heterosis is prevalent for multiple traits in diverse maize. Springer3 1usdaars, plant genetics research unit, and division of plant sciences, university of missouri, columbia, missouri, united states of america, 2usdaars, u. In modifying amd developing postgraduate course in genetics and plant breeding, emphasis has been given to keep a balance among major components like basic genetics, cytogenetics, plant breeding, quantitative genetics, molecular biology and biotechnology. Transcriptome profiling and comparison of maize ear.

Combining ability estimation are important genetic attributes for maize breeders in anticipating improvement in productivity via hybridization and selection. Heterosis, or hybrid vigor, contributes to superior agronomic performance of hybrids compared to their inbred parents. Heterosis is used to increase yields, uniformity, and vigor. Heterosis and combining ability for yield and its components. Understanding the combining ability and heterosis of available germplasm is a prerequisite for successful maize improvement and breeding. Hybrids in maize accounted for 65% of total maize cultivation by the late twentieth century and had contributed to a quadrupling of annual maize production. Growth regulation is pivotal for many important agronomic traits that can display heterosis. Combining ability and heterosis for yield and component. Heterosis for yield and agronomic attributes in diverse. Factors associated with the hybrid heterosis effect resulting from the crossing of inbred maize lines were discovered in 1992. Heterosis has been observed in many plant and animal species 1, 2. Background heterosis describes the superior phenotypes observed in hybrids relative to their inbred parents.

After maize hybrid was first utilized in field on a large scale in usa in 1930s, heterosis of other crops such as rice, sorghum, rape, and vegetable etc began to be widely used in production, and had made great achievements in crop breeding by the end of last century, mainly contributed to notable increasing of crop yield. Heterosis has been used in the breeding and production of many crop and animal species janick 1998. Genotypebyenvironment interactions affecting heterosis in maize. Heterosis in yellow maize australian journal of crop science. Heterosis it is defined as the superiority of f 1 hybrid over both the parents in terms of yield or some other characters. Introduction heterosis, the phenomenon in which f 1 hybrids exhibit phenotypes superior to their parents shull 1908.

Optimization of genomic prediction of hybrid performance. Maize, heterosis, combining ability, gene action, yield maize zea mays l. Although genetic and molecular underpinnings of heterosis are still. As one of the most widely grown crops around the world, maize zea mays ssp. Optimization of genomic prediction of hybrid performance in maize. Early maize ear inflorescences formation affects grain yield, and are thus an excellent model for molecular mechanisms involved in heterosis.

Heterosis and combining ability for yield and its components through diallel cross analysis in maize zea mays l. Heterosis and combining ability of seven maize germplasm. The successful exploitation of heterosis by maize breeders using the inbredhybrid technique during the second quarter of this century stimulated many animal breeders to investigate this method of breeding with poultry and swine as a practical scheme for controlled hybridization e. In this study we measured 25 traits in a set of 47 maize hybrids and their inbred parents. However, zein the main maize grain protein is poor in lysine and triptophan. Notably, the heterosis of mules the ability to perform more work with fewer resources was widely utilized in agriculture prior to mechanization. Combining ability and heterosis for yield and yield. Hence, our aim was to study the genetic control, heterosis effect and the prediction accuracy of the shoot and root traits of maize in response to a. However, the prediction eyciency needs to be further improved.

Despite its importance, little is known about the genetic and molecular basis of heterosis. Thus these crosses possess high heterosis which could be exploited commercially for higher yield in maize. Genetic dissection of yieldrelated traits and midparent. Khaleque mian 2, nasrin akter ivy 2, jalal uddin ahmed 3.

Heterosis and combining ability studies in maize zea maysl. Heterosis, also known as hybrid vigor, is a phenomenon where an organism has greater vigor than its distantly related parents and is the opposite of inbreeding depression. Maize is the most successful crop in utilizing heterosis. Maize exhibits heterosis for all traits and the extent of heterosis is significantly variable depending on the choice of parents and the traits measured. Heterosis, combining ability, gene effect, diallel analysis, maize. Maximum mid parent heterosis was detected for kiramat crossed with sw 1281 and. F1 hybrid exhibit significant heterosis for ph and eh as compared to their parental inbred lines. Combining ability and heterosis in maize zea mays l.

Heterosis and combining ability is prerequisite for developing a good economically viable maize variety. Apr 17, 2017 plant height ph and ear height eh are two important agronomic traits in maize selection breeding. Hybrid breeding methods are used in maize, sorghum, rice, sugar beet, onion, spinach, sunflowers, broccoli and to create a more psychoactive cannabis. The maize genome from gene discovery to application. Combining ability and heterosis analysis of single cross. The phenomenon of heterosis has been exploited extensively in maize zea.

Here, a principal component analysis pca of maize seed proteomes was used for representative inbreds of five heterotic germplasms and three classes of hybrid. Maize is an important crop with a high level of genome diversity and heterosis. Nov 22, 2016 hybridization is a prominent process in the evolution of crop plants that can give rise to gene expression variation, phenotypic novelty and heterosis. Heterosis in yellow maize 1 ae sharief, 1se elkalla, 2he gado and 2hae aboyousef 1agronomy dept. One of the reasons for using such wide crosses is to obtain heterosis. In maize crops, however, the use of heterosis developed in such a unique way that hybridization was recommended as a valuable breeding method. High heterosis estimates have been observed for yield in crosses between races of maize. Heterosis, inbreeding depression, various theories of. Combining ability heterosis maize plant breeding introduction types of hybrids, which exhibit high heterosis when the maize is the worlds most widely grown cereal and is uniformity. Percentage heterosis, heterosis yield, experimental hybrids yield, and inbreds yield of corn regressed on year of exp erimentation schnell, 1974. In maize, many expression studies in inbred lines and their hybrids have been performed to obtain a better understanding of the molecular basis of heterosis guo et al. Hybrids congregated in the center region of inbreds, forming an additive. Heterosis and combining ability for grain yield and yield.

The development of hybrid maize ears exhibits strong heterotic vigor and greatly affects maize yield. The genome sequence of a typical female line, b73, was previously released. Maize is mainly utilized for direct human consumption and livestock feed. Notwithstanding our limited insight into the genetic and molecular basis. Extensive intraspecific gene order and gene structural. This dissertation follows the style and format of crop science. Heterosis in rnaize single crosses derived from ayellow. Three maize hybrids were chosen to differentiate between low and high heterosis based on a number of traits flint. Combing ability, gene action and heterosis estimation in.

This was interpreted as heterosis in cell number due to an enhancement of the rate of cell division. Significant negative heterosis over mid parent of flowering traits was exhibited for tc 122, tc 772, tc 792, tc 9, tc 1191, tc 1222, 1261 and tc 2311. However, the genetic architecture of heterosis is not fully understood. A cross is said to show heterosis if h 0, so that the f 1 mean is larger than the average of both parents. Correlation between parental transcriptome and weld data for. Heterosis is prevalent for multiple traits in diverse maize germplasm sherry a. Transcriptome profiling and comparison of maize ear heterosis. The cross combination, dhk122003 x dhk122068, registered significant positive heterosis over both the checks for grain yield per plant. Average heterosis it is the heterosis where f 1 is superior to mid parent. Ye478 and 298 hybrids from the immortalized f2 if2 population were used to map quantitative. Mean yields and grain quality for maize varieties evaluated at 71,000ha in three organically managed fields in new york, 2002 variety yield % cp % fat % ash white flint a1223d 11.

Differential analysis of proteomes and metabolomes reveals. Melchinger1, 1 institute for plant breeding, seed science, and population genetics. Nonadditive protein accumulation patterns in maize zea mays. Heterosis and combining ability for grain yield and. Pdf maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. Each hybrid had the same female parent, b73, but a different male parent. The domestication of maize the maize genome maize genetics in the 20th century the future from gene discovery to application the dynamic maize genome corn, also known as maize from the spanish.

Pdf combining ability for growth parameter and yield components were evaluated in a 7. The correlation analysis revealed that the genotypic correlations were, in general higher than the phenotypic correlations and thus suggested that the observed relationships. Genetic variability and harboring of excessive hybrid vigor makes maize as a model crop for all kind of studies. In 2001 corn became the highest tonnage cereal crop worldwide. Specific changes in total and mitochondrial proteomes are. Heterosis has been extensively studied in maize maydica 50 2005. East 1908, has been exploited extensively in many field crops and animals to increase agricultural yields throughout the world. Heterosis expression in crosses between maize populations. Feeding people and protecting natural resources 1 donald n. In addition, many products such as oil, starch, gluten, alcohol, glucose and ethanol are obtained as a maize products. Thus, at least part of heterosis for pht in maize can be explained by increased ga and br levels, and seedling stage hormone inhibitor response is promising to predict heterosis for pht. Heterosis or hybrid vigour is a phenomenon in which hybrid progeny exhibit superior yield and biomass to parental lines and has been used to breed f1 hybrid cultivars in many crops. In the present study, heterosis was detected for length, weight, and the time point of seminal root primordia initiation in maize zea mays l. Genomewide metaanalysis of maize heterosis reveals the.

Sep 09, 2019 utilization of heterosis in maize is of great importance for boosting grain yield 14. These hybrids could be utilized in maize heterosis breeding to exploit hybrid vigor. Significant positive heterosis over better parent of grain yield was showed for most of the testcrosses. Inbreeding depression and heterosis in maize was initially documented by george h. Harnessing genomics to exploit maize genetic diversity for. However, a comprehensive perspective on transcriptional variation and its. Jul 30, 2018 maize is an important crop with a high level of genome diversity and heterosis. Opinion paper heterosis, stress, and the environment.

The present investigation was undertaken to elicit information on variability, correlation studies, path analysis, combining ability, heterosis and stability of maize for yield, yield components, physiological and quality characters of promising hybrids at different locations of andhra pradesh. Genetic basis of grain yield heterosis in an immortalized f2. Heterosis is prevalent for multiple traits in diverse. In the first study, fifteen maize inbred lines crossed in a diallel were evaluated under drought. Despite its importance in maize production, we know surprisingly little about the genetic basis of heterosis. If mphcorrelated genes contribute significantly to heterosis, this role should be interpretable in terms of quantitative genetics. Growth rate rather than growth duration drives growth. Information on heterosis and combining ability among maize germplasm is essential in maximizing the effectiveness of hybrid development. Unpollinated ears at the time of flowering ear shoots were selected for the studies because they are metabolically active. Pdf heterosis for yield and agronomic attributes in diverse maize.

Genotypebyenvironment interactions affecting heterosis. At high quality environments, heterosis for biomass at physiological maturity did not translate into heterosis for plant grain yield. Maize is a model system for studying heterosis due to the high levels of yield heterosis and commercial use of hybrids. Heterosis refers to the superior productivity and stress tolerance of highly heterozygous individuals.

Heterosis for harvest index was the major factor that set a limit to the expression of heterosis for plant grain yield. Shull 1952 coined the term heterosis and defined it as. The spikelet and floret differentiation stages are crucially important because the axillary spikelet pair meristems and floral meristems are formed during these stages, and these steps determine the two main components of maize yield, namely, kernel row number and kernel number per row 37, 38. Edwards heterosis is the foundation of modern maize breeding programs. Numerous breeders have been interested in heterosis for many years. Pdf combining ability and heterosis in maize zea mays l. Heterosis refers to the superior performance and stress tolerance of highly heterozygous groups or individuals. Highlights a bilinear model describes the association between heterosis for plant grain yield in maize and environmental quality. Duvick dn 1977 genetic rates of gain in hybrid maize yields during the past 40 years. In maize hybrid breeding, inbreds from complementary heterotic groups are crossed to create hybrids with superior vigor and increased yield, exploiting a phenomenon known as heterosis.

Research conducted using molecular rflp markers on 148 inbred lines of maize supported the use of these markers when the breeding material was clustered into heterotic groups 27. Further basic research on heterosis pattems should be conducted to obtain information on the development of singlecross hybrids that maximize the expression of heterosis. Heterosis in early maize ear inflorescence development. To this end, we analyzed the 1,999 mphcorrelated genes from thiemann et al. Selection of parental material to maximize heterosis using. Heterotic qtl for grain yield mapped near low r pericentromeric regions i. The leaves of monocotyledonous plants, such as maize zea mays l. Heterosis in crosses among white grain maize populations with high.

Heterosis and combining ability in crosses between two. Heterosis describes the superior performance of heterozygous f1hybrid plants compared to their homozygous parental inbred lines. This explanation of heterosis has been an undercurrent in ongoing discussions from 1936 east, 1936 to the present time e. Information on the heterotic patterns and combing ability among maize germplasm is essential in maximizing the. Nov 23, 2017 heterosis in ear traits of maize hybrid zd909. Good results have been achieved in increasing maize yield through the successful exploitation of heterosis. Methods the inbred lines from an association mapping panel were crossed to a common inbred line, b73, to generate nearly 300 hybrid genotypes.

Harlapur2 1department of genetics and plant breeding, college of agriculture, uas, dharwad580005, karnataka, india. Duvick introduction hybrid vigor, or heterosis, usually refers to the increase in size or rate of growth of offspring over parents. Average heterosis it is the heterosis where f 1 is superior to mid parent value. Moll rh, clark cockerham c, stuber cw, williams wp 1978 selection responses, geneticenvironmental interactions and heterosis with recurrent selection for yield in maize. Reports on heterosis in high quality protein maize populations found in literature. Heterosis most of the maize varieties grown in the u. The improvement of maize yields for ear weight depends on the knowledge of the type of the gene action involved in its inheritance and also the genetic control of related traits such as the capacity for production rezaei et. A century ago, dominance and overdominance hypotheses were developed to explain the phenomenon of heterosis, both hypotheses were in a nonadditive pattern. Jan 17, 2018 genotypebyenvironment interactions affecting heterosis in maize article pdf available in plos one 1.

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